The ports of Barcelona and San Diego both fell victim to cyber-attacks in September, as cyber criminals appear to be targeting the maritime industry.
The Port of Barcelona reported a cyber-attack on 20 September, although few details of the attack were made public. The port had initially warned that cargo may experience delays, however, the attack was contained and shipping was largely unaffected.
Just days later, the Port of San Diego in California revealed that it had suffered a ransomware attack. On 25 September, a cyber-attack disrupted the port’s information technology systems, although operations were unaffected. Public access to some port services was affected, including park permits, public record requests and business services. The port, which operates cargo and cruise terminals and is home to hotels, restaurants, marinas and museums, confirmed that it had received a ransom note, although the value of the ransom demand was not disclosed.
Both attacks followed a ransomware attack against shipping company COSCO in July. The Chinese group said its vessels were not affected by the attack, although COSCO’s terminal at the Port of Long Beach was impacted and customer communications were disrupted. Damage from the attack was reportedly contained because COSCO isolated its internal networks across its global operations, and because of ‘work-arounds’ that enabled cargo handling to continue without allowing the virus to spread.
Ports were also affected by the global malware attacks of 2017, which shut down terminals and disrupted shipping and cargo operations. Shipping company Maersk – which operates some 76 ports and nearly 800 vessels - was forced to switch off its global IT network. It took 10 days for the company to rebuild its entire network of 4,000 servers and 45,000 personal computers.
Unlike the 2017 attacks, which affected businesses indiscriminately, those against the ports of Barcelona and San Diego appear to have been targeted, according to Darktrace Industrial, which provides cyber security to a number of ports. The company speculates that the success of last year’s WannaCry and NotPetya malware attacks may have inspired attackers to pursue the maritime sector specifically.
Ports are likely to become more vulnerable to cyber-attacks with growing automation. Many ports and shipping companies are in the midst of a digital transformation – last year the port of Barcelona launched its Digital Port project with 54 initiatives to create digital applications, products and services. Shipping companies like Maersk and Mediterranean Shipping Company are investing in smart container technology that enables them to track and monitor shipments in real-time.
In the past, operating technology (OT), including industrial control systems, has been kept separate from wider IT systems, but it is increasingly becoming integrated. According to Darktrace, the creation of ‘smart’ ports and the convergence of IT and OT systems will challenge cyber security.
Maritime cyber security consultant Naval Dome warned that cyber-attacks against shore-based infrastructure, like that suffered by COSCO, could easily spread to ships. Shore-based and ship-based IT systems are linked, and can act as a gateway to vessels and leave them highly susceptible to an attack, it says. Naval Dome says it is aware of a number of serious cyber-attacks this year against companies in the maritime sector that have not been made public.
Airports have also been affected by cyber-attacks in recent months. Bristol Airport was hit by a ransomware attack in September that took down departure and arrival boards for two days. The airport said it had taken systems offline as a precautionary measure. Flights were unaffected, but the airport had to resort to whiteboards to keep passengers informed.
A ransomware attack against the city of Atlanta earlier this year caused the city’s Hartsfield-Jackson International airport to take some of its systems offline. Passengers at London’s Gatwick airport were also forced to resort to using whiteboards, after a damaged communications cable took-out flight information boards in August. In 2016, hackers attacked the website of Vietnam Airlines and the flight information screens in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City airports.
According to a report from PA Consulting Group, the number of airport-related cyber threats has grown significantly in recent years - there are 1,000 cyber-attacks on aviation systems each month, says the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). Like the maritime sector, airports and airlines have been affected by ransomware and other cyber-attacks. LATAM Airlines had data encrypted by WannaCry, while Ukraine’s Boryspil International Airport lost access to its systems during NotPetya. LOT Polish Airlines was also affected by a cyber-attack on its flight planning computers in 2015.
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